which includes opposition to same- sex marriage. The Avignon Papacy ended in 1376 when the pope returned to Rome, 318 but was followed in 1378 by the 38-year-long Western schism, with claimants to the papacy in Rome, Avignon and (after 1409) Pisa. 303 304 Through his Rule, Benedict of Nursia (c. 97 Nature of the church Main article: Catholic ecclesiology The Catholic Church teaches that it is the " one true church 7 98 "the universal sacrament of salvation for the human race 99 100 and "the one true religion". 325 Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation Main articles: Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation In 1415, Jan Hus was burned at the stake for heresy, but his reform efforts encouraged Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk in Germany, who sent his Ninety-Five Theses to several bishops in 1517. Had the Roman Church been merely founded by Peter and not reckoned him as its first bishop, there could have been no ground for such a contention. 202 This is because it is considered the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ himself. After the war, freedom of religion was severely restricted in the Communist countries newly aligned with the Soviet Union, several of which had large Catholic populations. 500, the bishops, or popes, of Rome, steadily increased in authority through their consistent intervening donne in cerca di sesso a milano nuovi video porno gratis in support of orthodox leaders in theological disputes, which encouraged appeals to them. Archived from the original on 6 September 2014. Chastity includes temperance, self-mastery, personal and cultural growth, and divine grace.